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Citation Count - 35

Nicholas Cooper 1 and Natarajan Meghanathan 2
1Northern Kentucky University, Nunn Drive, Highland Heights, KY, USA 2 Jackson State University, 1400 Lynch St, Jackson, MS, USA

The high-level contribution of this paper is a detailed simulation based analysis about the impact of mobility models on the performance of node-disjoint and link-disjoint multi-path routing algorithms for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). We consider the following MANET mobility models: Random Waypoint, Random Direction, Gauss-Markov, City Section and Manhattan mobility models. Simulations have been conducted for various network density and node mobility levels. The performance metrics studied include the lifetime per multi-path set, the multi-path set size and the average hop count per multi-path. For almost every simulation condition, we observe the Gauss-Markov mobility model to yield the least number of multi-paths, but the lifetime per multi-path set under this mobility model is the maximum. The Random Direction mobility model yields the smallest lifetime per multi-path set, even though it yields a relatively larger number of multi-paths.


Mobility Models, Multi-path Routing, Simulations, Mobile Ad hoc Networks

For More Details : http://airccse.org/journal/cnc/0110s013.pdf

Volume Link : http://airccse.org/journal/ijc2010.html

  1. N. Meghanathan,- Stability and Hop Count of Node-Disjoint and Link-Disjoint Multi-path Routes in Ad Hoc Networks, Proceedings of the 3 rd IEEE International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications, New York, October 2007.
  2. C. Bettstetter, H. Hartenstein and X. Perez-Costa, “Stochastic Properties of the Random-Waypoint Mobility Model,” Wireless Networks, Vol. 10, No. 5, pp. 555-567, 2004.
  3. E. M. Royter, P. M. Melliar-Smith and L. E. Moser, “An Analysis of the Optimum Node Density for Ad Hoc Mobile Networks,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications, Vol. 3, pp. 857-861, June 2001.
  4. B. Liang and Z. Haas, “Predictive Distance-based Mobility Management for PCS Networks,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications, Vol. 3, pp. 1377- 1384, March 1999.
  5. T. Camp, J. Boleng and V. Davies, “A Survey of Mobility Models for Ad Hoc Network Research,” Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing, Vol. 2, No. 5, pp. 483-502, September 2002.
  6. F. Bai, N. Sadagopan and A. Helmy, “IMPORTANT: A Framework to Systematically Analyze the Impact of Mobility on Performance of Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Networks,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications, pp. 825-835, March-April 2003.
  7. T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R. L. Rivest and C. Stein, “Introduction to Algorithms,” 2 nd Edition, MIT Press/ McGraw Hill, Sept. 2001.

Citation Count - 29

Pushpita Chatterjee

School of Information Technology Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India


In this paper we present a distributed self-organizing trust based clustering framework for securing ad hoc networks. The mobile nodes are vulnerable to security attacks, so ensuring the security of the network is essential. To enhance security, it is important to evaluate the trustworthiness of nodes without depending on central authorities. In our proposal the evidence of trustworthiness is captured in an efficient manner and from broader perspectives including direct interactions with neighbors, observing interactions of neighbors and through recommendations. Our prediction scheme uses a trust evaluation algorithm at each node to calculate the direct trust rating normalized as a fuzzy value between zero and one. The evidence theory of Dempster-Shafer [7], [8] used in order to combine the evidences collected by a clusterhead itself and the recommendations from other neighbor nodes. Moreover, in our scheme we do not restrict to a single gateway node for inter cluster routing.


Ad hoc networks, Trust, Cluster, Security, Distributed Leader Election

For More Details : http://airccse.org/journal/cnc/0709s08.pdf

Volume Link : http://airccse.org/journal/j2current.html

  1. Pushpita Chatterjee, Indranil Sengupta and S.K. Ghosh.: A Trust Based Clustering Framework for Securing Ad Hoc Networks, in Proc. of ICISTM 2009, CCIS 31, pp. 313-324, 2009.
  2. Vardhanrajan et al: Security for cluster based ad hoc networks, in Proc. of Computer Communications 27(2004), pp. 488-501.
  3. Rachedi et al: Trust and mobility based clustering algorithm for secure ad hoc networks, in Proc. of ICSNC '06, October, 2006. ISBN: 0-7695-2699-3.
  4. Marc Bechler and Hans-Joachim Hof and Daniel Kraft and Frank Pahlke and Lars Wolf: A ClusterBased Security Architecture for Ad Hoc Networks, in Proc.of IEEE INFOCOM, 2004.
  5. Hubaux, J. P., Buttyan, L. and Capkun, S. (2001): The Quest for Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, in Proc. of ACM Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing, 146-155.
  6. Zhou, L. and Haas, Z. J. (1999): Securing Ad Hoc Networks, in IEEE Network Magazine, 13(6).
  7. P. Dempster: A generalization of Bayesian interface , Journal of Royal Statistical Society (1968), 205-447
  8. G. Shafer: A Mathematical theory of Evidence, Princeton University Press, 1976
  9. Garfinkel, S. (1995): PGP: Pretty Good Privacy, O'Reilly Associates, Inc.
  10. Pirzada, A. A. and McDonald, C. (2003): A Review of Secure Routing Protocols for Ad hoc Mobile Wireless Networks, in Proc. Of 2nd Workshop on the Internet, Telecommunications and Signal Processing DSPCS'03, WITSP'03.
  11. Rahman, A. A. and Hailes, S. (1997): A Distributed Trust Model, in Proc. of the ACM New Security Paradigms Workshop, 48-60.
  12. M. Chatterjee, S.K. Das and D. Turgut: An on-demand weighted clustering algorithm (WCA) for ad hoc networks, in Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM 2000, San Francisco, November 2000, pp. 1697- 1701.
  13. S. Basagni: Distributed clustering for ad hoc networks, in Proc. of International Symposium on Parallel Architectures, Algorithms and Networks, June 1999, pp. 310-315.
  14. Virendra et al: Quantifying trust in Mobile ad hoc networks, in Proc. of KIMAS, 2005, April 18-21, 2005, Waltham USA.
  15. N. Malpani, J. Welch and N. Vaidya. Leader Election Algorithms for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, in Fourth International Workshop on Discrete Algorithms and Methods for Mobile Computing and Communications, Boston, MA, August, 2000.
  16. Sudarshan Vasudevan, Brian Decleene, Neil Immerman, Jim Kurose, Don Towsley: Leader Election Algorithms for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks in Proc. of DARPA Information Survivability Conference and Exposition, 2003.
  17. Simon G, Volgyesi P, Maroti M, Ledeczi A.: Simulation based optimization of communication protocols for large-scale wireless sensor neworks, in Proc. of IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, MT, March, 2003.

Citation Count - 27

Rakesh Kumar, Manoj Misra and Anil K. Sarje

Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkree, India


When a Mobile Ad Hoc network (MANET) is connected to the Internet, it is important for mobile nodes to detect available Internet gateway (IGW) providing access to the Internet. Gateway discovery time have strong influence on packet delay and throughput. In most of the cases, a mobile node uses min- hops to the gateway to communicate a fixed host connected to an Internet. However, a minimum hop path may not always be efficient if some nodes along the path have longer interface queue of waiting packets. Thus, the focus of the paper is to first analyse existing load-aware routing protocols in MANET and then based on this analysis, devise a proactive load-aware gateway discovery scheme that takes in to account size of interface queue in addition to the traditional min hop metric. This approach also allows an efficient handoff from one Internet gateway to another Internet gateway and still maintains a seamless connectivity to a fixed host. We examine the impact of traffic load and node mobility in terms of two metrics: throughput and average end-to-end delay to assess the performance of the proposed protocol. Simulation results indicate that our protocol outperforms existing solution.


MANET, Internet Gateway Discovery, Load Balancing, Congestion, Mobile IP, Internet, AODV, NS2, Performance Evaluation.

For More Details : http://airccse.org/journal/cnc/0910ijcnc08.pdf

Volume Link : http://airccse.org/journal/ijc2010.html

  1. Carlos Cordeiro and Dharma P. Agrawal, “Ad Hoc & Sensor Networks, Theory and Applications,” World Scientific Publishing, 2006, (paper back).
  2. C Siva Ram Murthy and B S Manoj, Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Architectures and Protocols, Pearson Education, 2004.
  3. Dave Cavalcanti, Anup Kumar, and Dharma P. Agrawal, “Integrated Heterogeneous Wireless Networks,” Chapter 19 in Book, Wireless Ad Hoc Networking, pp. 483-503, Auerbach Publications, 2007.
  4. Rakesh Kumar, Manoj Misra, Anil K. Sarje, “Internet Access in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” International Conference on Advance Computing and Communication (ICACC 2007) India, 9-10 Feb. 2007.
  5. Y. Sun, et al., “Internet Connectivity for Ad Hoc Mobile Networks,” International Journal of Wireless Information Networks, Special Issue on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs): Standards, Research, Applications, April 2002.
  6. P. Ratanchandani, and R. Kravets, “A Hybrid Approach to Internet Connectivity for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” in Proceedings of the IEEE WCNC 2003, New Orleans, USA, vol. 3, pp. 1522- 1527, March 2003.
  7. R. Wakikawa, J. Malinen, C. Perkins, A. Nilsson, and A. Tuominen, “Internet Connectivity for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Internet-Draft, draft-wakikawa-manet-global6-02.txt, Nov. 2002, Work in progress.
  8. Rakesh Kumar, Manoj Misra, Anil K. Sarje, “A Simulation Analysis of Gateway Discovery for Internet Access in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” International Journal of Information Processing (ISSN 0973-8215), Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 52-64, 2008.
  9. E.M. Belding-Royer, Y. Sun, C.E. Perkins, “Global Connectivity for IPv4 Mobile Ad Hoc Network, IETF Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-manet-globalv4-00.txt, November 2001.
  10. Tseng Y.C., Shen C.C, and Chen W.T., “Mobile IP and Ad Hoc Networks: An Integration and Implementation Experience,” Technical Report, Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Chaio Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 2003.
  11. Hossam El-Moshrify, M. A. Mangoud, M.Rizk, ”Gateway Discovery in Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing for Internet Connectivity,” 24th National Radio Science Conference (NRSC 2007), March 13-15, 2007,Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University Alexandria 21544., Egypt.
  12. U. Jonsson, F. Alriksson, T. Larsson, P. Johansson, and G.M. Maquire, “MIPMANET: Mobile IP for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proceedings of IEEE/ACM Workshop on Mobile and Ad Hoc Networking and Computing, Boston, MA USA, pp. 75-80, August 1999.
  13. A. Hamidian, U. Korner, and A. Nilsson, “A Study of Internet Connectivity for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks in NS2”, Department of Communication Systems, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University, January 2003.
  14. J. Lee, D. Kim, J. J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, Y. Choi, J. Choi and S. Nam, “Hybrid gateway Advertisement Scheme for Connecting Mobile Ad Hoc Networks to the Internet,” Proceedings of the 57th IEEE VTC 2003, Korea, pp. 1991-195, April 2003.
  15. S. Bin, S. Bingxin, L. Bo, H. Zhonggong, and Z. Li, “Adaptive gateway Discovery Scheme for Connecting Mobile Ad Hoc Networks to the Internet,” Proceedings of International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing, vol. 2, pp. 795-799, 2005.
  16. I. Matta, and M. Krunz, “Packing and Least-Loaded Based Routing in Multi-Rate Loss Networks,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Montreal, Canada, 1997, pp. 827-831. International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications (IJCNC) Vol.2, No.5, September 2010 138
  17. A. Bestavros, and I.Matta, “Load Profiling for Efficient Route Selection in Multi-Class Networks,” Proceedings of the IEEE International conference on Network Protocols (ICNP), Atlanta, GA, 1997, pp.183-190.
  18. A. Shaikh, J. Rexford and K. G. Shin, “Load-Sensitive Routing of Long Lived IP Flows,” Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM Conference on Communication Architectures, Protocols and Applications, Cambridge, MA, 1999, pp. 215-226.
  19. Rakesh Kumar, Manoj Misra, Anil K. Sarje “Routing with Load Balancing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” “Proceedings of 3rd International Conference ObCom 2006: Mobile, Ubiquitous & Pervasive Computing, Dec 18-19, 2006, VIT University, Vellore, India.
  20. S. J. Lee, and M. Gerla, “Dynamic Load-Aware Routing in Ad Hoc Networks,” Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications, vol. 10, 2001, pp. 3206-3210.
  21. H. Hassanein and A. Zhou, “Routing with Load Balancing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” in Proc. of the 4th ACM Intl. Workshop on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems, Rome, Italy, July 2001, pp. 89-96.
  22. K. Wu and J. Harms, Proceedings of Tenth International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks, (ICCCN ’01), Phoenix, AZ, October 2001, pp. 540-546.
  23. X. F. Li B. C. Kim, J. Y. Lee, H. S. Lee, and J. S. Ma, “An Ad Hoc Routing Protocol with Minimum Contention Time and Load Balancing,” IEEE GLOBECOM 2003, pp. 81-85.
  24. Y. Li, and H. Man, “Three Load Metrics for Routing in Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC) Fall’04 Los Angles, CA, 2004, pp. 2764-2768.
  25. X. Q. Zheng Wei Guo, Renting Liu, and Yongchun Tian, “A New Dynamic Load-Aware based Load-Balanced Routing for Ad hoc Networks,” International Conference on Communications, Circuits and Systems (ICCCAS 2004), vol. 1, 27-29 June, 2004, pp. 407-411.
  26. A. H. Altalhi and G. G. Richard, “Load-Balanced Routing through Virtual Path: Highly Adaptive and Efficient Routing Scheme for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” IEEE, 2004, pp. 407-413.
  27. Y. Yuan, H. Chen, and M. Jia, “An Adaptive Load-Balancing Approach for Ad Hoc Networks,” Intl. Conf. on WCNM 2005, vol. 2, 23-26 Sept. 2005, pp. 743-746.
  28. Y. J. Lee and G. F. Riley, “A Workload-based Adaptive Load-Balancing Technique for Mobile Ad hoc Networks,” IEEE Wireless Communications & Networking Conference (WCNC 2005), vol. 4, 2005, pp.2002-2007.
  29. Sheu, S. T. & Chen, J. (2001). A Novel Delay Oriented Shortest Path Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Communications, Helsinki, Finland.
  30. J. H. Song, V. Wong, and V. C. M. Leung, “Load-Aware On-Demand Routing (LAOR) Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, Proceedings of IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTCSpring), Jeju, Korea, April 2003.
  31. L. Wang, L. Y. Shu and M. Dong, “Multi-Path Source Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. Of Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, vol. 1, March 2000, pp. 479-483.
  32. Kui Wu and Janelle Harms, “On-Demand Multi-path Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” EPMCC 2001, Vienna Austria, 20-22 Feb. 2001, pp. 1-7.
  33. P. Pham, and S. Perreau, “ Multi-Path Routing Protocol with Load Balancing Policy in Mobile Ad Hoc Network, “ Proc. IEEE Conf. on Mobile & Wireless Communications Networks (MWCN 2002), 2002, pp. 48-52.
  34. P. P. Pham and S. Perreau, “Analysis of Reactive Shortest Single Path Routing Mechanism vs Multi-Path Routing Protocol with Load Balance Policy,” Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM, San Fransisco, California, USA, April 2003, pp. 251-259.
  35. Yi Fu, Kwang-Mien Chan, Kean-Soon Tan and Boon-Sain Yeo, “Multi-Metric Gateway Discovery for MANET,” IEEE 2006.
  36. YuHua Yuan, HuiMin Chen, and Min Jia, “An Adaptive Load-balancing Approach for Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE 2005.
  37. M. S. Corson, J. P. Maker and G. H. Cirincione , "Internet-Based Mobile Ad Hoc Networking," IEEE Internet Computing, Vol. 3, No. 4, July-August 1999, pp. 63-70.
  38. NS 2 Home page : http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/ index.html
  39. E. Hyytia, H. Koskinen et al., “Random Waypoint Model in Wireless Networks,” Networks and Algorithms: Complexity in physics and Computer Science, Helsinki, June 16-19, 2005.
  40. C. Perkins, E. Belding-Royer and S. Das, “Ad Hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing Protocol,” IETF Internet RFC 3561, July 2003.

Citation Count - 27

Muhammad Shaffatul Islam1,Md. Adnan Riaz2 and Mohammed Tarique3

1Khulna University of Engineering and Technology, Khulna Bangladesh

2Technical University of Munich, Munich Germany

3Ajman University of Science and Technology,Fujairah, UAE


Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) are very considered attractive for many applications. Routing protocol is considered as the most important element of MANET. However,Media streaming over MANET is a quite demanding task. In this paper the performances of MANET routing protocols have been investigated for video applications. Some popular routing protocols namely Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA), Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR), and Geographic Routing Protocol (GRP) have been considered in this paper. A comparative performance analysis of these routing protocols has been presented in this paper for supporting video streaming applications.


Mobile Ad hoc Networks, routing protocols, video streaming, DSR, AODV, TORA, OSLR, GRP, QoS.

For More Details : http://airccse.org/journal/cnc/0512cnc10.pdf

Volume Link : http://airccse.org/journal/ijc2012.html

  1. S. Corson and J. Macker. “Mobile Ad Hoc Networking (MANET): Routing Protocol Performance Issues and Evaluation Consideration”, available at http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2501.txt
  2. E.M. Royer, C-K. Toh, “A Review of Current Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks”, IEEE Personal Communications Magazine, April 1999, pp. 46-55.
  3. R. Bai, M. Singhal, DOA: DSR over AODV Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, Vol. 5, No. 10, 2006, pp. 1403-1416
  4. M. U. Chowdhury, D. Perera, T. Pham, “A Performance Comparison of three Wireless Multihop Ad-hoc Network Routing Protocols when Streaming MPEG-4 Traffic”, In Proceedings of the 8th International Multi topic Conference, 2004, pp. 516-521.
  5. A. Shrestha, F. Tekiner. “On MANET Routing Protocols for Mobility and Scalability” In the Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing, Applications and Technologies (PDCAT 2009), Higashi Hiroshima, Japan, 8-11, December 2009, pp. 451-456.
  6. H. Tafazolli, “A Survey of QoS Routing Solutions for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 50-70, 2007.
  7. IEEE 802.11 WG. IEEE 802.11e, Medium Access Control (MAC) Quality of Service (QoS) Enhancements. Draft Supplement to IEEE 802.11 Standard, 2005.
  8. Janio M. Monteiro, Carlos T. Calafate, and Mario S. Nunes, “Evaluation of the H.264 Scalable Video Coding in Error Prone IP Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, Vol. 54, No. 3, September 2008, pp. 652-659
  9. Gyeongcheol Lee and Hwangjun Song, “Cross layer optimized video streaming based on IEEE 802.11 multi-rate over multi-hop mobile ad hoc networks,” Mobile Network Application, Vol. 15, October 2010, pp. 652-663
  10. Tarek Sheltami, “Performance Evaluation of H.264 Protocol in Ad hoc Networks,” Journal of Mobile Multimedia, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2008, pp. 59-70
  11. Carlos T. Calafate, M. P. Malumbres, P. Manzoni,” Performance of H.264 compressed video streams over 802.11b based MANETs,” In the Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Distributed Computer System Workshops, March 2004, pp. 776-781
  12. Jose L. Muñoz *, Oscar Esparza, Mónica Aguilar, Victor Carrascal, Jordi Forné,” RDSR-V. Reliable Dynamic Source Routing for video-streaming over mobile ad hoc networks.” Journal of computer networks, 2010, Vol. 54, pp.79-96
  13. Elsa Mac ıas, Member, IAENG, Alvaro Suarez, Member, IAENG, J. Mart´ın and Vaidy Sunderam,” Using OLSR for Streaming Video in 802.11 Ad-Hoc Networks to Save Bandwidth.” IAENG International Journal of Computer Science, Vol. 33, No. 1, 2007
  14. Ronald Beaubrun and Badji Molo, “Using DSR for routing multimedia traffic in MANETs,” International journal of Computer Networks and Communications (IJCNC), January 2010, Vol.2, No.1, pp. 120-138
  15. Aftab Ahmad. “ Wireless and Mobile Data Networks.” John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2005.
  16. Anurag Malik, Shivanshu Rastogi, Sajendra Kumar,” Performance Analysis of Routing Protocol in MobileAd Hoc Network using NS-2.” MIT International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology, January 2011, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 47-50.
  17. Mohammed Tarique, Kemal E. Tepe, Sasan Adibi and Shervin Erfani, “ A survey on the multipath routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks”, Journal of Networks and Computer Applications, Vol. 32, No.6, November 2009, pp.1125-1143
  18. Muhammad Shaffatul Islam, Md. Nazmul Islam, Md. Shah Alam, Md. Adnan Riaz, Md. Tanvir Hasan, “Performance evaluation of various vocoders in Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET),” In the Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering ( ICECE) 2010, pp. 18-20
  19. C. E. Perkins, E. M. Belding-Royer, and S. R. Das, “Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing,” Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) draft, November 2002.
  20. Vincent D. Park and M. Scott Corson, “A performance comparison of the Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) and Ideal Link-State Routing”, In the Proceedings of IEEE symposium on Computer and Communication, June 1999
  21. T. Clausen, and P. Jacquet, “Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR)”, IETF, RFC 3626, 2003.
  22. H. Badis, and K. Al Agha, “QOLSR, QoS routing for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Using OLSR”. In European Transactions on Telecommunications, Vol. 16, No. 5, 2005, pp. 427-442
  23. Jain, R., Puri, A. and Sengupta, R., “Geographical Routing Using Partial Information for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Personal Communications Magazine, Vol. 8, No. 1, Feb. 2001, pp. 48-57,
  24. M. Mauve, J. Widmer, H. Hartenstein, “A Survey on Position-based Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks”, IEEE Network Magazine, 2001, Vol. 15, No. 6, pp. 30-39.

  Citation Count - 19

Ho Dac Tu and Shigeru Shimamoto

Graduate School of Global Information and Telecommunication Studies Waseda University 29-7 building, 1-3-10 Nishi-Waseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-0051 Japan


This paper proposes a reliable system to overcome the weakness of current the HF radio communication system for oceanic aeronautical flight routes. This system uses only one aeronautical VHF channel with air-toair radio relay system based on local mobile Ad-hoc networks. For access to/from all aircrafts in the system, a TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) scheme is proposed to be used where each aircraft is assigned one time slot during its presence in the system in order to transmit its own packet by itself or relay them using neighbouring aircrafts. These packets contain aircraft position, ID, relative direction which are used to build a routing table at each aircraft. In addition, several algorithms for relaying packets; schemes to reduce the packet-loss-ratio as well as to reduce the interference caused by surrounding aircrafts have been proposed. The simulations have shown the improvement of such proposals when examining system performance under real air-traffic scenarios. This system strengthens the reliability of oceanic aeronautical communication and increases situational awareness of all oceanic flights as an effective solution to operate more flights on the ocean but in higher safety.


Oceanic air traffic control communications, air-to-air communication, air-to-ground, mobile Ad-hoc networks

For More Details : http://airccse.org/journal/cnc/93.pdf

Volume Link : http://airccse.org/journal/j2current.html

  1. M. Sumiya, S. Nagakoka, O. Amai, “Survey on the Destination Airport of Oceanic Air traffic,” Electronic Navigation Research Institute Papers, No. A-18-3, 2001.
  2. Current and Estimated Air Traffic in Japan. [Online]. Available: http://www.mlit.go.jp/singikai/koutusin/koku/hoan/2/images/sankou2_2.pdf
  3. ARINC Report 634, “HF Data Link System Design Guidance Material,” Maryland, U.S.A, Aug. 30 1996.
  4. ARINC HF Data Link Protocols, “ARINC Specification 635-3,” Maryland, U.S.A.., Dec. 29, 2000.
  5. AMC Reference 02-59/MSG-177, pp.123, Huston, U.S.A., April 2002.
  6. E. Haas, “Aeronautical Channel Modelling,” IEEE Trans. on Vehicular Technology, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 254-264, March 2002.
  7. Y. Tsuda, C. Song, S. Shimamoto, S. Matsushita, J. Kitaori, S. Kato, “A Proposal of an Ad Hoc Network on Oceanic Flight Route,” EICE Trans. on Commun., vol. J85-B, no. 12, pp. 2054-2062, Dec. 2002.
  8. National Aerospace Laboratory, a Concept of Free Flight. [Online]. Available:http://www2.nlr.nl/public/hosted-sites/freeflight/main.html
  9. M. Schnell and S. Scalise, “Newsky - A Concept for Networking the Sky for Civil Aeronautical Communications,” 25th Digital Avionics Systems Conference IEEE/AIAA, Oct. 2006.
  10. E. Sakhae, A. Jamalipour, N. Kato, “Aeronautical Ad Hoc Network”, IEEE WCNC, Apr. 2006.
  11. D. Medina, F. Hoffmann, S. Ayaz, C. Rokitansky, “Feasibility of an Aeronautical Mobile Ad Hoc Network Over the North Altlantic Corridor”, IEEE/SECON, Jun. 2008.
  12. B. Welch and I. Greenfeld, “Oceanic Situational Awareness Over the North Atlantic Corridor”, NASA Glenn Research Center, Clevehand, Ohio, Apr. 2005.
  13. B. Welch and I. Greenfeld, “Oceanic Situational Awareness Over the Pacific Corridor”, NASA Glenn Research Center, Clevehand, Ohio, Apr. 2005.
  14. M. Sumiya, S. Nagakoka, O. Amai, “Survey of Air Traffic Floww on the North Pacific Routes”, Electronic Navigation Research Institute Papers, No.114, Mar. 2005.

Citation Count - 18

Mandeep Kaur Gulati1 and Krishan Kumar2

1Deptt. of Computer Science, KCW ASR, PTU Kapurthala, Punjab, India 2Deptt.of Computer Science and Engg, SBS State Technical Campus Ferozepur, PTU Kapurthala, Punjab, India


Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is an infrastructure less and decentralized network which need a robust dynamic routing protocol. Many routing protocols for such networks have been proposed so far to find optimized routes from source to the destination and prominent among them are Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV), and Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) routing protocols. The performance comparison of these protocols should be considered as the primary step towards the invention of a new routing protocol. This paper presents a performance comparison of proactive and reactive routing protocols DSDV, AODV and DSR based on QoS metrics (packet delivery ratio, average end-to-end delay, throughput, jitter), normalized routing overhead and normalized MAC overhead by using the NS-2 simulator. The performance comparison is conducted by varying mobility speed, number of nodes and data rate. The comparison results show that AODV performs optimally well not the best among all the studied protocols.


Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), AODV, DSDV, DSR

For More Details: http://airccse.org/journal/cnc/6214cnc11.pdf

Volume Link: http://airccse.org/journal/ijc2014.html

  1. C. E. Perkins and P. Bhagwat, “ Highly Dynamic Destination- Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing (DSDV) for Mobile Computers,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM, pp. 234-244, 1994.
  2. S. Murthy and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, “An efficient routing protocol for wireless networks,” ACM Mobile Networks and Applications Journal, pp.183-197, 1996.
  3. T . Chen and M. Gerla, “Global state routing: A new routing scheme for ad hoc wireless networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE ICC’98, Vol. 1, pp.171-175, 7-11 June 1998.
  4. A. Iwata, C.-C. Chiang, G. Pei, M. Gerla, and T.-W. Chen, "Scalable Routing Strategies for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in communications, Special Issue on Ad-Hoc Networks, pp.1369-79, Aug 1999.
  5. C. E. Perkins, B. Royer and S.R. Das, "Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing,” http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-manet-aodv-13.txt, IETF Internet draft, Feb2003.
  6. D. Johnson, D.A. Maltz and J. Broch, "The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks,”http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-manet-dsr-10.txt, IETF Internet draft, 19 July2004.
  7. M. Jiang, J. Li, Y.C. Tay, "Cluster Based Routing Protocol," August 1999 IETF Draft.http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-manet-cbrp-pec-01.txt.
  8. Z. J. Haas, “The Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) for ad hoc networks,” Internet Draft, Nov. 1997.
  9. M. Joa-Ng and I-Tai Lu, “ A peer-to-peer zone-based two- level link state routing for mobile ad hoc net-works,” IEEE on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 17, No. 8, pp. 1415- 1425,1999.
  10. M. K. Gulati and K. Kumar, “QoS routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks: a survey,” International Journal of Wireless and Mobile Computing (IJWMC), Vol.5, No.2, pp.107-118, May 2012.
  11. J. Broch, D. Maltz, D. B. Johnson, Y-C.Hu and J. Jetcheva, “ A performance comparison of multihop wireless ad hoc network routing protocols,” In Proceedings of the 4th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, MobiCom ’98, Dallas, TX, 1998.
  12. S.R. Das, C. E. Perkins and E. M. Royer, “Performance comparison of two on-demand routing protocols for ad hoc networks,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), Tel Aviv, Israel, pp.3-12, March 2000.
  13. A. Boukerche,“ A performance comparison of routing protocols for ad hoc networks,” In proceedings of the 15th International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, SanFrancisco, CA, 2001.
  14. A. Boukerche, “Performance evaluation of routing protocols for ad hoc wireless networks,” Mobile Networks and Applications,Vol.9, No.4, pp.333-342, 2004.
  15. S. Ahmed and M.S. Alam, “Performance evaluation of important ad hoc network protocols,”EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, Vol.2, pp. 42-42, 2006.
  16. A. Divecha, A.C Grosan and S. Sanya , “ Impact of node mobility on MANET routing protocols models” Journal of Digital Information Management, Vol.5, pp.19-23, 2007.
  17. B.R.A. Kumar, L.C. Reddy and P.S. Hiremath, “ Performance comparison of wireless mobile ad-hoc network routing protocols,” International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, Vol. 8, No.6, pp. 337-343, 2008.
  18. A.H.A Rahman and Z.A. Zukarnain, “Performance comparison of AODV, DSDV and I-DSDV routing protocols in mobile ad hoc networks,” European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol.31, No.4, pp.566-576, 2009.
  19. N. Qasim, F. Said and H. Aghvami, “ Mobile ad hoc networking protocols evaluation through simulation for quality of service,” IAENG International Journal of Computer Science , Vol.36, No.1, pp.76-84, 2009.
  20. M.S. Islam, A.Riaz and M.Tarique, “Performance Analysis of the Routing Protocols for Video Streaming Over Mobile Ad Hoc NetworksPerformance Analysis of the Routing Protocols for Video Streaming Over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks” International Journal of Computer Networks & Communication (IJCNC), Volume 4, Issue 3, pp. 133-150, 2012.
  21. R. Beaubrun and B. Molo, “Using DSR for routing multimedia traffic in MANETs,” International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications (IJCNC), Vol.2, No.1, pp. 120-138, January 2010.
  22. K. Vats, M. Sachdeva, K. Saluja and A. Rathee, “Simulation and performance analysis of OLSR routing protocol using OPNET,” International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 2, February 2012.
  23. K. Fall and K. Vardhan, The Network Simulator
  24. (ns- 2).Available:http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns

Citation Count - 16

R. Pandi Selvam and V.Palanisamy
Department of Computer Science and EngineeringAlagappa University, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India

Mobile ad hoc networks are becoming an important concept of modern communication technologies and services. It provides some advantages to this communication world such as self-organizing and decentralization. In this paper, we are going to design a cluster-based multi source multicast routing protocol with new cluster head election, path construction and maintenance techniques. The main objective of this work to compute the maximum performance of proposed routing protocol in various environments, and also it has been compared with Multicast Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (MAODV) and On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP) to prove the performance of delivery ratio, control overhead and forwarding efficiency.


Mobile Ad hoc Networks, Routing Protocols, MAODV, ODMRP, Multicasting, Clustering, Network Simulator

For More Details : http://airccse.org/journal/cnc/0111ijcnc10.pdf

Volume Link : http://airccse.org/journal/ijc2011.html

  1. R. Manoharan and E. Ilavarasan, “Impact of the mobility on the performance of multicast routing protocols in MANET”, International Journal of wireless & mobile networks (IJWMN), vol.2 no.2, 2010, pp 110-119.
  2. Ratish Agarwal and Mahesh Motwani, “Survey of clustering algorithms for MANET”, International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering, vol.1 (2), 2009, pp. 98-104.
  3. Arwa Zabian, Ahmed Ibrahim and Fadi Al-Kalani, “Dynamic Head Cluster Election Algorithm for Clustered Ad-Hoc Networks”, Journal of Computer Science 4(1), 2008, pp. 42-50.
  4. Luo Junhai , Xue Liu and Ye Danxia, “Research on multicast routing protocols for mobile adhoc networks”, Computer Networks 52, 2008, pp. 988-997.
  5. Yi.-Yu Su, Shiow-Fein Hwang and Chyi-Ren Dow, “An Efficient cluster-based routing algorithm in ad hoc networks with unidirectional links”, Journal of Information Science and Engineering 24, 2007, pp. 1409 - 1428.
  6. Law, L. K., Krishnamurthy, S. V., and Faloutsos. M., “Understanding and exploiting the tradeoffs between broadcasting and multicasting in mobile ad hoc networks”, Trans. on mobile computing, 2007, pp. 264 - 279.
  7. Zeyad M. Alfawaer, GuiWei Hua, and Noraziah Ahmed, “A Novel Multicast Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, American Journal of Applied Sciences 4 (5), 2007, pp. 333-338.
  8. Bai, R., and Singhal, M., “DOA: DSR over AODV routing for mobile ad hoc networks”, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 2006, pp.1403-1416.
  9. Yi-Yu Su, Shiow-Fen Hwang and Chyi-Ren Dow, “An Efficient Multi-Source Multicast Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks” 11th International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems (ICPADS'05), IEEE, 2005.
  10. Jane y. Yu and peter h. J. Chong, “A survey of clustering schemes for mobile ad hoc networks”, IEEE communications surveys & tutorials, vol.7. no.1 2005.
  11. Abolfazle Akbari, Mahdi Soruri and Seyed Vahid Jalali, “Survey of stable clustering for Mobile Ad- hoc Networks”, second International Conference on Machine Vision, 2009, pp. 3-7.
  12. Krishna Gorantala, “Routing protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks”, Master Thesis in Computer Science, Dept.of Comp.Sci., Umea Univ., Swedan, June 2006.
  13. Y.Y. Su, S.F. Hwang, and C.R. Dow, “An Efficient Cluster-Based Routing Algorithm in Ad Hoc Networks with Unidirectional links,” Proceedings of International Computer Symposium (ICS2002), pp. 511- 520, Dec 2002.
  14. C.-K. Toh, “Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Protocols and Systems”, Prentice Hall, 2002.
  15. Teerawat Issariyakul and Ekram Hossain, “Introduction to Network Simulator (NS2)”, ISBN: 978-0-387-71759-3.
  16. S.Park, “NS-2 Tutorial”, [Online]. Available: http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns

 Citation Count - 14

Heni KAANICHE1, Fatma LOUATI2, Mounir FRIKHA3 and Farouk KAMOUN
1 National School of Computer Sciences, Manouba, Tunisia 2National School of engineers of Sfax, Tunisia 3Higher School of Communication of Tunis, Tunisia

At the same time as the emergence of multimedia in mobile Ad hoc networks, research for the introduction of the quality of service (QoS) has received much attention. However, when designing a QoS solution, the estimation of the available resources still represents one of the main issues. This paper suggests an approach to estimate available resources on a node. This approach is based on the estimation of the busy ratio of the shared canal. We consider in our estimation the several constraints related to the Ad hoc transmission mode such as Interference phenomena. This approach is implemented on the AODV routing protocol. We call AODVwithQOS our new routing protocol. We also performed a performance evaluation by simulations using NS2 simulator. The results confirm that AODVwithQoS provides QoS support in ad hoc wireless networks with good performance and low overhead.


Mobile Ad hoc networks, QoS, Available resources, Estimation, Constraints, Shared canal, Interference phenomena.

For More Details: http://airccse.org/journal/cnc/0111ijcnc14.pdf

Volume Link: http://airccse.org/journal/ijc2011.html

  1. Cheikh Sarr, Claude Chaudet, Guillaume Chelius, Isabelle Guérin Lassous (2005). “A node-based available bandwidth evaluation in IEEE 802.11 ad hoc Networks”. International Journal of Parallel, Emergent and Distributed Systems.
  2. Dongyan Chen, Daqing Gu and Jinyun Zhang (2004). “Supporting Real-time Traffic with QoS in IEEE 802.11e Based Home Networks”. MERL - A Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratory.
  3. Fedoua Didi, Houda Labiod, Guy Pujolle and Mohamed Feham (2009) “Mobility and QoS of 802.11 and 802.11e Wireless LAN Standards”. The International Arab Journal of Information Technology.
  4. Andreas Johnsson, Bob Melander, and Mats Björkman (2010). “DietTopp: A first implementation and evaluation of a simplified bandwidth measurement method”. Department of Computer Science and Engineering Mälardalen University, Sweden.
  5. Cheikh Sarr, Claude Chaudet, Guillaume Chelius and Isabelle Guérin Lassou (2006). “Improving Accuracy in Available Bandwidth Estimation for 802.11-based Ad Hoc Networks”.INRIA.
  6. Irina Gerasimov, Robert Simon (2002). “A Bandwidth-Reservation Mechanism for On-Demand Ad hoc Path Finding”.IEEE computer society.
  7. Claude Chaudet, Isabelle Guerin Lassous (2001). “BRuIT : Bandwidth Reservation under InTerferences influence”. INRIA.
  8. Anelise Munaretto , Mauro Fonseca (2007). “ Routing and quality of service support for mobile ad hoc networks”,Computer Networks Elsevier.
  9. Qi Xue and Aura Ganz (2002). “ Ad hoc QoS on-demand routing (AQOR) in mobile ad hoc networks”, Computer Networks Elsevier.
  10. Pablo Brenner (1996). “A technical tutorial on the IEEE 802.11 protocol”. Breezcom wireless communication.
  11. M.Manshaei, T.Turletti, M.Krunz (2004). “A Media-Oriented Transmission Mode Selection in 802.11Wireless LANs”. IEEE Communications Society.
  12. I.Guerin-Lassous, D.Dhoutaut (2003). “Experiments with 802.11b in Ad hoc configurations”. INRIA.
  13. N. Ch. Sriman Narayana Iyengar, (2010) « An Efficient and secure routing protocol for mobile Adhoc networks », International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications (IJCNC),Vol. 2, No. 3, pp 28-36.
  14. S.R. Das, C.E. Perkins, E. M. Royer (2000). “Performance Comparison of Two On-demand Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Networks”. Division of Computer Science the University of Texas at San Antonio U.S.A, Networking and Security.
  15. S.R. Das, C.E. Perkins, E. M. Royer, M.K. Marina (2001). “Performance Comparison of Two Ondemand Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Networks”. University of Cincinnati.
  16. C.E. Perkins, E.M. Royer, S.R. Das (2003). “Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing”. Network Working Group RFC 3561.
  17. D.Dhoutaut (2003). “Etude du standard IEEE802.11 dans le cadre des réseaux Ad hoc : de la simulation l’experimentation” Thesis INSA Lyon.

Citation Count - 13

S. M. Kamruzzaman

School of Electronics and Information Engineering Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Korea


This paper proposes a cross-layer based cognitive radio multichannel medium access control (MAC) protocol with TDMA, which integrate the spectrum sensing at physical (PHY) layer and the packet scheduling at MAC layer, for the ad hoc wireless networks. The IEEE 802.11 standard allows for the use of multiple channels available at the PHY layer, but its MAC protocol is designed only for a single channel. A single channel MAC protocol does not work well in a multichannel environment, because of the multichannel hidden terminal problem. Our proposed protocol enables secondary users (SUs) to utilize multiple channels by switching channels dynamically, thus increasing network throughput. In our proposed protocol, each SU is equipped with only one spectrum agile transceiver, but solves the multichannel hidden terminal problem using temporal synchronization. The proposed cognitive radio MAC (CR-MAC) protocol allows SUs to identify and use the unused frequency spectrum in a way that constrains the level of interference to the primary users (PUs). Our scheme improves network throughput significantly, especially when the network is highly congested. The simulation results show that our proposed CR-MAC protocol successfully exploits multiple channels and significantly improves network performance by using the licensed spectrum band opportunistically and protects PUs from interference, even in hidden terminal situations.


Cognitive radio, multichannel MAC, ad hoc networks, frequency spectrum, TDMA, channel sensing.

For More Details  : http://airccse.org/journal/cnc/0910ijcnc01.pdf

Volume Link : http://airccse.org/journal/ijc2010.html

  1. I. F. Akyildiz, W. Y. Lee, M. Vuran, and S. Mohanty, “Next generation/dynamic spectrum access/cognitive radio wireless networks: A survey,” Comput. Netw., vol. 50, no. 13, pp. 2127- 2159, Sep. 2006.
  2. R. W. Thomas, L. A. DaSilva, and A. B. MacKenzie, “Cognitive networks,” in Proc. IEEE DySPAN, Nov. 2005, pp. 352-360.
  3. A. Raniwala, T. Chiueh, “Architecture and algorithms for an IEEE 802.11-based multi-channel wireless mesh network,” in Proc. IEEE Infocom, Aug. 2005, vol. 3 pp. 2223-2234.
  4. A. Raniwala, K. Gopalan, T. Chiueh, “Centralized channel assignment and routing algorithms for multi-channel wireless mesh networks,” ACM Mob. Comp. and Commu. Review (MC2R), vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 50-65, Apr. 2004.
  5. S. Haykin, “Cognitive radio: Brain-empowered wireless communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 201-220, Feb. 2005.
  6. M. Devroye, P. Mitran, and V. Tarohk, “Limits on communications in a cognitive radio channel,” IEEE Commun. Mag., pp. 44-49, Jun. 2006.
  7. D. Cabric, S. Mishra, R. Brodersen, “Implementation issues in spectrum sensing for cognitive radios,” in Proc. ACSSC, Nov. 2004.
  8. N. Choi, M. Patel, and S. Venkatesan, “A full duplex multi-channel MAC protocol for multi-hop cognitive radio networks,” in Proc. CrownCom, 2006, pp. 1-5.
  9. IEEE 802.11 Working Group, “Wireless LAN medium access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specifications,” IEEE 802.11 Standard, 1997.
  10. T. Shu, S. Cui, and M. Krunz, “Medium access control for multi-channel parallel transmission in cognitive radio networks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, Nov. 2006.
  11. H. Bany Salameh, M. Krunz, and O. Younis, “Distance and traffic-aware channel assignment in cognitive radio networks,” in Proc. IEEE SECON, Jun. 2008.
  12. S. Sankaranarayanan, P. Papadimitratos, A. Mishra, and S. Hershey, “A bandwidth sharing approach to improve licensed spectrum utilization,” in Proc. IEEE DySPAN, Nov. 2005, pp. 279- 288.
  13. A. Sabharwal, A. Khoshnevis, and E. Knightly, “Opportunistic spectral usage: bounds and a multiband CSMA/CA protocol,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 533-545, June 2007.
  14. V. Brik, E. Rozner, S. Banarjee, and P. Bahl, “DSAP: A protocol for coordinated spectrum access,” in Proc. IEEE DySPAN, Nov. 2005, pp. 611- 614.
  15. S. Zekavat and X. Li, “User-central wireless system: Ultimate dynamic channel allocation,” in Proc. IEEE DySPAN, Nov. 2005, pp. 82- 87.
  16. D. Cabric, S. Mishra, D. Willkomm, R. Brodersen, and A. Wolisz, “A cognitive radio approach for usage of virtual unlicensed spectrum,” in Proc. Mobile and Wireless Comm. Summit, Jun. 2005.
  17. L. Ma, X. Han, and C.-C. Shen, “Dynamic open spectrum sharing MAC protocol for wireless ad hoc networks,” in Proc. IEEE DySPAN, Nov. 2005, pp. 203-213.
  18. Y. Yuan, P. Bahl, R. Chandra, P. Chou, J. Ferrell, T. Moscibroda, S. Narlanka, and Y. Wu, “Knows: Kognitive networking over white spaces,” in Proc. IEEE DySPAN, Apr. 2007, pp. 416- 427.
  19. IEEE 802.22 Working Group on Wireless Regional Area Networks,” http://www.ieee802.org/22/, 2009.
  20. C. Cordeiro and K. Challapali, “C-MAC: A cognitive MAC protocol for multichannel wireless networks,” in Proc. IEEE DySPAN, Apr. 2007, pp. 147-157.
  21. H. Su and X. Zhang, “Cognitive radio based multichannel MAC protocols for wireless ad hoc networks”, in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, Nov. 2007, pp. 4857-4861.
  22. − “CREAM-MAC: An Efficient Cognitive Radio-EnAbled Multi-Channel MAC Protocol for Wireless Networks”, in Proc. WOWMOM, Jun. 2008, pp. 1-8.
  23. H. A. Bany Salameh, M. M. Krunz, and O. Younis, “MAC protocol for opportunistic cognitive radio networks with soft guarantees”, IEE Trans. Mob. Comp. vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1339-1352, Oct.2009.
  24. M. Timmers, S. Pollin, A. Dejonghe, L. Van der Perre, and F. Catthoor, “A distributed multichannel MAC protocol for multihop cognitive radio networks”, IEEE Trans. Veh. Tech. vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 446-459, Jan. 2010.
  25. Q. Zhao, L. Tong, and A. Swami, “Decentralized cognitive MAC for dynamic spectrum access,” in Proc. IEEE DySPAN, Nov. 2005, pp. 224- 232.
  26. A. Chia-Chun Hsu, David S. L. Wei, and C.-C. Jay Kuo, “A cognitive radio MAC protocol using statistical channel allocation for wireless ad hoc networks,” in Proc. IEEE WCNC, Mar. 2007, pp. 105-110.
  27. Y. R. Kondareddy and P. Agrawal, “Synchronized MAC protocol for multi-hop cognitive radio networks”, Proc. IEEE ICC, May 2008, pp. 3198-3202.
  28. L. Le and E. Hossain, “OSA-MAC: A MAC protocol for opportunistic spectrum access in cognitive radio networks,” in Proc. IEEE WCNC, Mar. 2008, pp. 1426-1430.
  29. A. Raniwala and T. Chiueh, “Architecture and algorithms for an IEEE 802.11-based multi-channel wireless mesh network,” in Proc. IEEE Infocom, pp. 2223-2234, Mar. 2005.
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  31. M. Thoppian, S. Venkatesan, R. Prakash, R. Chandrasekaran, “MAC-layer scheduling in cognitive radio based multi-hop wireless networks,” in Proc. WoWMoM, Jul. 2006, pp. 191-202.
  32. J. Zhang, G. Zhou, C. Huang, S. H. Son, and J. A. Stankovic, “TMMAC: An energy efficient multi-channel MAC protocol for ad hoc networks,” in Proc. IEEE ICCC, Jun. 2007, pp. 3554- 3561.
  33. The Network Simulator -ns-2, http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/.

   Citation Count - 12

Waleed S. Alnumay1 and Uttam Ghosh2

1Computer Science Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  2Dept. of E&ECE, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302, India


In this paper, we present an identity (ID) based protocol that secures AODV and TCP so that it can be used in dynamic and attack prone environments of mobile ad hoc networks. The proposed protocol protects AODV using Sequential Aggregate Signatures (SAS) based on RSA. It also generates a session key for each pair of source-destination nodes of a MANET for securing the end-to-end transmitted data. Here each node has an ID which is evaluated from its public key and the messages that are sent are authenticated with a signature/ MAC. The proposed scheme does not allow a node to change its ID throughout the network lifetime. Thus it makes the network secure against attacks that target AODV and TCP in MANET. We present performance analysis to validate our claim.


MANET, AODV, TCP, Signature, Attacker, Security

For More Details  : http://airccse.org/journal/cnc/6114cnc08.pdf

Volume Link : http://airccse.org/journal/ijc2014.html

  1. C. Perkins, E. Belding-Royer, and S. Das, “Ad hoc on-demand distance vector (aodv) routing,” draftietf-manet-aodv-11.txt, June 2002 (work in progress).
  2. J. Kim and G. Tsudik, “Srdp: securing route discovery in dsr,” in Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services, pp. 247-258, July 2005.
  3. K. Sanzgiri, B. Dahill, B. Levine, C. Shields, and E. Belding-Royer, “A secure routing protocol for ad hoc networks,” in Proceedings of 10th IEEE International Conference on Network Protocols and ICNP’02, pp. 78-87, IEEE Computer Society, 2002.
  4. Y.-C. Hu, A. Perrig, and D. B. Johnson, “Ariadne: A secure on-demand routing protocol for ad hoc networks,” in Proceedings of the 8th Annual ACM International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom ’02), September 2002.
  5. P. Papadimitratos and Z. J. Haas, “Secure routing for mobile ad hoc networks,” in Proceedings of SCS Communication Networks and Distributed Systems Modeling and Simulation Conference (CNDS 2002), January 27-31 2002.
  6. M. Zapata and N. Asokan, “Securing ad hoc routing protocols,” in Proceedings of the ACM Workshop on Wireless Security (WiSe), September 2002.
  7. U. Ghosh and R. Datta, “Sdrp: Secure and dynamic routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks,” IET Networks, 2013 (Accepted).
  8. B. Wu, J. Chen, J. Wu, and M. Cardei, “A survey of attacks and countermeasures in mobile ad hoc networks,” in Wireless Network Security, Springer US, 2007.
  9. W. Diffie and M. E. Hellman, “New directions in cryptography,” in IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. IT22, pp. 644-654, November 2006.
  10. A. Perrig, R. Canetti, D. Song, and J. Tygar, “Efficient and secure source authentication for multicast,” in Proceedings of Network and Distributed System Security Symposium and NDSS’01, pp. 35-46, February 2001.
  11. P. P. Papadimitratos and Z. J. Haas, “Secure Data Communication in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 343-356, 2006.
  12. H. Hsieh and R. Sivakumar, “Transport overwireless networks,” in Handbook of Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing, Edited by Ivan Stojmenovic. John Wiley and Sons, 2002.
  13. Q. Zheng, X. Hong, J. Liu, and L. Tang, “A secure data transmission scheme for mobile ad hoc networks,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM), pp. 1006 -1010, November 2007.
  14. “Ip security protocol (ipsec).” http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/ipsp-charter.html.
  15. K. K. Ramakrishnan, S. Floyd, D. Black, and G. K. Ramakrishnan, “The addition of explicit congestion notification (ecn) to ip,” 2001.
  16. R. de Oliveira and T. Braun, “Tcp in wireless mobile ad hoc networks,” tech. rep., 2002.
  17. R. P. C. Kaufman and M. Speciner, “Network security private communication in a public world,” in Handbook of Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing, Prentice Hall PTR, A division of Pearson Education, 2002.
  18. U. Ghosh and R. Datta, “A secure dynamic ip configuration scheme for mobile ad hoc networks,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 1327 - 1342, 2011.
  19. U. Ghosh and R. Datta, “Idsddip: a secure distributed dynamic ip configuration scheme for mobile ad hoc networks,” International Journal of Network Management, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 424-446, 2013.
  20. U. Ghosh and R. Datta, “Adip: an improved authenticated dynamic ip configuration scheme for mobile ad hoc networks,” International Journal of Ultra Wideband Communications and Systems, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 102-117, 2009.
  21. H. Shacham, “Sequential aggregate signatures from trapdoor homomorphic permutations,” 2003.
  22. A. Lysyanskaya, S. Micali, L. Reyzin, and H. Shacham, “Sequential aggregate signatures from trapdoor permutations,” in Advances in Cryptology EUROCRYPT 2004, pp. 74-90, Springer-Verlag,A 2004.
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  24. P. Chatterjee, “Trust based clustering and secure routing scheme for mobile ad hoc networks,” IJCNC Journal, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 84-97, 2009.