• 1. Delay-Power Performance Comparison Of Multipliers In Vlsi Circuit Design

    Sumit Vaidya and Deepak Dandekar
    July 2010 | Cited by 121
    A typical processor central processing unit devotes a considerable amount of processing time in performing arithmetic operations, particularly multiplication operations. Multiplication is one of the basic arithmetic operations and it requires substantially more hardware resources and processing time than addition and subtraction. In fact, 8.72% of all the instruction in typical processing units is multiplication. In this paper, comparative study of different multipliers is done for low power requirement and high speed. The paper gives information of �Urdhva Tiryakbhyam� algorithm of Ancient Indian Vedic Mathematics which is utilized for multiplication to improve the speed, area parameters of multipliers. Vedic Mathematics suggests one more formula for multiplication of large number i.e. �Nikhilam Sutra� which can increase the speed of multiplier by reducing the number of iterations.
  • 2. Ubiquitous smart home system using android application

    Shiu Kumar
    January 2014 | Cited by 112
    This paper presents a flexible standalone, low cost smart home system, which is based on the Android app communicating with the micro-web server providing more than the switching functionalities. The Arduino Ethernet is used to eliminate the use of a personal computer (PC) keeping the cost of the overall system to a minimum while voice activation is incorporated for switching functionalities. Devices such as light switches, power plugs, temperature sensors, humidity sensors, current sensors, intrusion detection sensors, smoke/gas sensors and sirens have been integrated in the system to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed smart home system. The smart home app is tested and it is able successfully perform the smart home operations such as switching functionalities, automatic environmental control and intrusion detection, in the later case where an email is generated and the siren goes on.
  • 3. Energy Detection Technique for Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio: A Survey

    Mahmood A.Abdulsattar and Zahir A. Hussein
    September 2012 | Cited by 77
    Spectrum sensing is the basic and essential mechanisms of Cognitive Radio (CR) to find the unused spectrum. This paper presents an overview of CR architecture, discusses the characteristics and benefits of a CR. Energy detectionbased spectrum sensing has beenproposed and used widely because it doesn�t require transmitted signal properties, channel information, or even the type of modulation. In this paper, a surveyof energy detector over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN), different fading channels for spectrum sensing methodologies in cognitive radio is presented.Theoretical analysis of time domain energy detection and threshold setting is investigated. Cooperative spectrum sensing and a multiple antenna processing based energy detector receptions are also discussed.
  • 4. Wireless Sensor Networks Localization Algorithms: A Comprehensive Survey

    Asma Mesmoudi, Mohammed Feham and Nabila Labraoui
    November 2013 | Cited by 54
    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have recently gained a lot of attention by scientific community. Small and inexpensive devices with low energy consumption and limited computing resources are increasingly being adopted in different application scenarios including environmental monitoring, target tracking and biomedical health monitoring. In many such applications, node localization is inherently one of the systemparameters. Localization process is necessary to report the origin of events, routing and to answer questions on the network coverage ,assist group querying of sensors. In general, localization schemes are classified into two broad categories: range-based and range-free. However, it is difficult to classify hybrid solutions as range-based or range-free. In this paper we make this classification easy, where range-based schemes and range-free schemes are divided into two types: fully schemes and hybrid schemes. Moreover, we compare the most relevant localization algorithms and discuss the future research directions for wireless sensor networks localization schemes.
  • 5. Towards Internet of Things (IOTS): Integration of Wireless Sensor Network to Cloud Services for Data Collection and Sharing

    Rajeev Piyare and Seong Ro Lee
    September 2013 | Cited by 47
    Cloud computing provides great benefits for applications hosted on the Web that also have special computational and storage requirements. This paper proposes an extensible and flexible architecture for integrating Wireless Sensor Networks with the Cloud. We have used REST based Web services as aninteroperable application layer that can be directly integrated into other application domains for remote monitoring such as e-health care services, smart homes, or even vehicular area networks (VAN). For proof of concept, we have implemented a REST based Web services on an IP based low power WSN test bed, which enables data access from anywhere. The alert feature has also been implemented to notify users via email or tweets for monitoring data when they exceed values and events of interest.
  • 6. Optimal Placement of Readers in an RFID Network Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Indrajit Bhattacharya and Uttam Kumar Roy
    November 2010 | Cited by 47
    An RFID network consists of a set of tags and readers. The cost and the number of tags covered directly depend on the number of readers. So, finding optimal number of readers and their positions to cover all tags is one of the most important issues in an RFID network.In this paper, we have proposed a reader placement technique in a departmental store equipped with RFID network using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The proposed algorithm finds minimal number of readers along with their position with 100% coverage of tagged items. Simulated results also show the algorithms effectiveness in achieving the optimal solution.
  • 7. Real Time Wireless Health Monitoring Application Using Mobile Devices

    Amna Abdullah, Asma Ismael, Aisha Rashid, Ali Abou-ElNour and Mohammed Tarique
    May 2015 | Cited by 40
    In the last decade the healthcare monitoring systems have drawn considerable attentions of the researchers. The prime goal was to develop a reliable patient monitoring system so that the healthcare professionals can monitor their patients, who are either hospitalized or executing their normal daily life activities. In this work we present a mobile device based wireless healthcare monitoring system that can provide real time online information about physiological conditions of a patient. Our proposed system is designed to measure and monitor important physiological data of a patient in order to accurately describe the status of her/his health and fitness. In addition the proposed system is able to send alarming message about the patient�s critical health data by text messages or by email reports. By using the information contained in the text or e-mail message the healthcare professional can provide necessary medical advising. The system mainly consists of sensors, the data acquisition unit, microcontroller (i.e., Arduino), and software (i.e., LabVIEW). The patient�s temperature, heart beat rate, muscles, blood pressure, blood glucose level, and ECG data are monitored, displayed, and stored by our system. To ensure reliability and accuracy the proposed system has been field tested. The test results show that our system is able to measurethe patient�s physiological data with a very high accuracy.
  • 8. A Secure Data Communication System Using Cryptogaphy And Steganography

    Saleh Saraireh
    May 2013 | Cited by 34
    The information security has become one of the most significant problems in data communication. So it becomes an inseparable part of data communication. In order to address this problem, cryptography and steganography can be combined. This paper proposes a secure communication system. It employs cryptographic algorithm together with steganography. The jointing of these techniques provides a robust and strong communication system that able to withstand against attackers. In this paper, the filter bank cipher is used to encrypt the secret text message, it provide high level of security, scalability and speed. After that, a discrete wavelet transforms (DWT) based steganography is employed to hide the encrypted message in the cover image by modifying the wavelet coefficients. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated using peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and histogram analysis. The simulation results show that, the proposed system provides high level of security.
  • 9. Analyzing the Performance of Active Queue Management Algorithms

    G.F.Ali Ahammed and Reshma Banu
    March 2010 | Cited by 34
    Congestion is an important issue which researchers focus on in the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) network environment. To keep the stability of the whole network, congestion control algorithms have been extensively studied. Queue management method employed by the routers is one of theimportant issues in the congestion control study. Active queue management (AQM) has been proposedas a router-based mechanism for early detection of congestion inside the network. In this paper we analyzed several active queue management algorithms with respect to their abilities of maintaining highresource utilization, identifying and restricting disproportionate bandwidth usage, and their deployment complexity. We compare the performance of FRED, BLUE, SFB, and CHOKe based on simulationresults, using RED and Drop Tail as the evaluation baseline. The characteristics of different algorithms are also discussed and compared. Simulation is done by using Network Simulator(NS2) and the graphs are drawn using X- graph.
  • 10. Anomaly Intrusion Detection Design Using HYBRID of Unsupervised and Supervised Neural Network

    M. Bahrololum, E. Salahi and M. Khaleghi
    July 2009 | Cited by 33
    This paper proposed a new approach to design the system using a hybrid of misuse and anomaly detection for training of normal and attack packets respectively. The utilized method for attack training is the combination of unsupervised and supervised Neural Network (NN) for Intrusion Detection System. By the unsupervised NN based on Self Organizing Map (SOM), attacks will be classified into smaller categories considering their similar features, and then unsupervised NN based on Backpropagation will be used for clustering. By misuse approach known packets would be identified fast and unknown attacks will be able to detect by this method.
  • 11. A New Approach for Complex Encrypting and Decrypting Data

    Obaida Mohammad Awad Al-Hazaimeh
    March 2013 | Cited by 31
    During the last decades, information security has become a major issue. Encrypting and decrypting data have recently been widely investigated and developed because there is a demand for a stronger encryption and decryption which is very hard to crack. Cryptography plays major roles to fulfilment these demands. Nowadays, many of researchers have proposed many of encryption and decryption algorithms such as AES, DES, RSA, and others. But most of the proposed algorithms encountered some problems such as lack of robustness and significant amount of time added to packet delay to maintain the security on the communication channel between the terminals. In this paper, the security goals were enhanced via "A New Approach for Complex Encrypting and Decrypting Data" which maintains the security on thecommunication channels by making it difficult for attacker to predicate a pattern as well as speed of the encryption / decryption scheme.
  • 12. Channel Estimation Study for Block - Pilot Insertion in OFDM Systems Under Slowly Time Varying Conditions

    Aida Zaier and Ridha Bouall�gue
    November 2011 | Cited by 31
    In this paper, we propose a study of performance of the channel estimation using LS, MMSE, LMMSE and Lr-LMMSE algorithms in OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) system which, as known suffers from the time variation of the channel under high mobility conditions, using block pilot insertion. The loss of sub channel orthogonality leads to inter-carrier interference (ICI). Using many algorithms for channel estimation, we will show that, for a 16- QAM modulation, the LMMSE algorithm performs well to achieve this estimation but when the SNR (Signal Noise Rate) is high, the four algorithms (LS, MMSE, LMMSE and Lr-LMMSE) perform similarly, this is not always the case for another scheme of modulation. We will improve also the mean squared error for these algorithms. It will be illustrious in this paper that the LMMSE algorithm performs well with the block- pilot insertion as well as its low rankversion which behave very good even when the size of FFT is very high.
  • 13. Network Mobility Support Scheme on PMIPv6 Networks

    Hyo-Beom Lee, Youn-Hee Han and Sung-Gi Min
    September 2010 | Cited by 29
    NEMO (Network Mobility) is proposed to support node mobility collectively. NEMO BSP is the most popular protocols to support NEMO based on MIPv6. However it does not satisfy requirements of realtime and interactive application due to problems, such as long signaling delay and movement detection time. Also MN should have mobility function for its handover. Proxy MIPv6 (PMIPv6) is proposed to overcome defects of MIPv6 based protocols. In this paper, we propose a Network Mobility supporting scheme, which supports MNs� mobility between PMIPv6 network and mobile network as well as the basic network mobility.
  • 14. Trust Based Clustering and Secure Routing Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Pushpita Chatterjee
    July 2009 | Cited by 29
    In this paper we present a distributed self-organizing trust based clustering framework for securing ad hoc networks. The mobile nodes are vulnerable to security attacks, so ensuring the security of the network is essential. To enhance security, it is important to evaluate the trustworthiness of nodes without depending on central authorities. In our proposal the evidence of trustworthiness is captured in an efficient manner and from broader perspectives including direct interactions with neighbors, observing interactions of neighbors and through recommendations. Our prediction scheme uses a trust evaluation algorithm at each node to calculate the direct trust rating normalized as a fuzzy value between zero and one. The evidence theory of Dempster-Shafer [7], [8] used in order to combine the evidences collected by a clusterhead itself and the recommendations from other neighbor nodes. Moreover, in our scheme we do not restrict to a single gateway node for inter cluster routing.
  • 15. Performance Analysis of the Routing Protocols for Video Streaming Over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Muhammad Shaffatul Islam, Md. Adnan Riaz and Mohammed Tarique
    May 2012 | Cited by 27
    Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) are very considered attractive for many applications. Routing protocol is considered as the most important element of MANET. However, media streaming over MANET is a quite demanding task. In this paper the performances of MANET routing protocols have been investigated for video applications. Some popular routing protocols namely Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm(TORA), Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR), and Geographic Routing Protocol (GRP) have been considered in this paper. A comparative performance analysis of these routing protocols has been presented in this paper for supporting video streaming applications.
  • 16. Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.15.4/Zigbee Standard Under Real Time Constraints

    Lamia CHAARI and Lotfi KAMOUN
    September 2011 | Cited by 27
    In recent years, very interesting researches are concentrated to develop several protocols for Wireless sensor networks (WSN) and to explore WSN in various scenarios. The standardization of the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol as a flexible communication solution for low-rate wireless sensor networks leads to thewidespread deployment of this technology in many potential applications with different requirements especially in industrial automation. The IEEE 802.15.4 specifies physical and media access control layers that could be optimized to ensure low-power consumption and to guarantee real-time constraints by using its guaranteed time slot (GTS) mechanism and enabling Beacon mode. Our focus in this paper is on real-time capabilities and reliability. We analyzed and compared the performance of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard using OMNET++ Simulator. Among the objectives of our study is to outline which degree the standard accomplish real time requirements. Different application scenarios were been evaluated. The analysis gives a full understanding of the behavior of the IEEE 802.15.4 access mechanism concerning data delivery delay, goodput, throughput and packet errors rate metrics. We have focused on single sink scenarios and we have analyzed some network performance according to nodes number. Our simulation results pave the way for an efficient dimensioning and deploying of an IEEE 802.15.4 cluster.
  • 17. A Proactive Load-Aware Gateway Discovery in Ad-Hoc Networks for Internet Connectivity

    Rakesh Kumar, Manoj Misra and Anil K. Sarje
    September 2010 | Cited by 26
    When a Mobile Ad Hoc network (MANET) is connected to the Internet, it is important for mobile nodes to detect available Internet gateway (IGW) providing access to the Internet. Gateway discovery time have strong influence on packet delay and throughput. In most of the cases, a mobile node uses min- hops to the gateway to communicate a fixed host connected to an Internet. However, a minimum hop path may not always be efficient if some nodes along the path have longer interface queue of waiting packets. Thus, the focus of the paper is to first analyse existing load-aware routing protocols in MANET and then based on this analysis, devise a proactive load-aware gateway discovery scheme that takes in to account size of interface queue in addition to the traditional min hop metric. This approach also allows an efficient handoff from one Internet gateway to another Internet gateway and still maintains a seamless connectivity to a fixed host. We examine the impact of traffic load and node mobility in terms of two metrics: throughput and average end-to-end delay to assess the performance of the proposed protocol. Simulation results indicate that our protocol outperforms existing solution.
  • 18. The Affects of Different Queuing Algorithms within the Router on QoS VoIP application Using OPNET

    Hussein A. Mohammed, Adnan Hussein Ali and Hawraa Jassim Mohammed
    January 2013 | Cited by 25
    Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a service from the internet services that allows users to communicate with each other. Quality of Service (QoS) is very sensitive to delay so that VOIP needs it. The objective of this research is study the effect of different queuing algorithms within the router on VoIP QoS.In this work, simulation tool �OPNET Modeler version 14.0� is used to implement the proposed network (VoIP Network). The proposed network is a private network for a company that has two locations located at two different countries around the world in order to simulate the communications within the same location as a local and the communications between two locations as a long distanceand analyze VoIP QoS through measuring the major factors that affect the QoS for VoIP according to international telecommunication union (ITU) standards such as: delay, jitter and packet loss. In this research ,a comparison was carried out between different queue algorithms like First in First out (FIFO), Priority queue (PQ) and Weight Fair Queuing (WFQ) and it was found that PQ and WFQ algorithms are the most appropriate to improve VoIP QoS .
  • 19. Investigate the Performance Evaluation of IPTV Over WiMAX Networks

    Jamil M. Hamodi and Ravindra C. Thool
    January 2013 | Cited by 25
    Deployment Video on Demand (VoD) over the next generation (WiMAX) has become one of the intense interest subjects in the research these days, and is expected to be the main revenue generators in the near future and the efficiency of video streaming over next generation 4G is the key to enabling this. We are considering video streaming for real time video was coded by different H.264.x codes (H.264/AVC, and SVC), and we consider an IP-Unicast to deliver this streaming video over WiMAX. Our approach investigates the performance evaluation of IPTV (VoD) over WiMAX networks. OPNET is used to investigate the performance of VoD over WiMAX. Results obtained from simulation indicate that SVC video codec is an appropriate video codec for video streaming over WiMAX.
  • 20. U-Learning Within A Context-Aware Multiagent Environment

    Monica Vladoiu and Zoran Constantinescu
    January 2011 | Cited by 25
    New technological developments have made it possible to interact with computer systems and applications anywhere and anytime. It is vital that these applications are able to adapt to the user, as a person, and to its current situation, whatever that is. Therefore, the premises for evolution towards a learning society and a knowledge economy are present. Hence, there is a stringent demand for new learner-centred frameworks that allow active participation of learners in knowledge creation within communities, organizations, territories and society, at large. This paper presents the multi-agent architecture of our context-aware system and the learning scenarios within ubiquitous learning environments that the system provides support for. This architecture is the outcome of our endeavour to develop ePH, a system for sharing public interest information and knowledge, which is accessiblethrough always-on, context-aware services.