Citation Count – 25
In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), links are created and destroyed in an unpredictable way, which makes quite challenging the determination of routes between each pair of nodes. In this paper, we propose a formulation of the routing problem in multi-services MANETs, as well as the implementation of an adaptation of the dynamic source routing (DSR) protocol. Simulation results reveal that DSR enables to provide end-to-end delay less than 0.11 s, as well as packet delivery ratio higher than 99% and normalized routing load less than 13%, for low mobility level and low traffic intensity.
 A. Al-Maashri, M. Ould-Khaoua, Performance Analysis of MANET Routing Protocols in the Presence of Self-Similar Traffic, Proceedings of 31st IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, 14-16 Nov. 2006, pp. 801–807.
 R. Bai, M. Singhal, DOA: DSR over AODV Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, Vol. 5, No. 10, pp. 1403– 1416, 2006.
 P. Calyam, M. Sridharan, W. Mandrawa, P. Schopis, Performance Measurement and Analysis of H.323 Traffic, In Proceedings of 5th International Workshop on Passive and Active Network Measurement (PAM 2004), France, Vol. 3 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, pp. 137-146, April 19-20, 2004.
 A. Chaplot, A Simulation Study of Multi-Hop Wireless Network, IEEE International Conference on Personal Wireless Communications, pp. 86–89, December 15-17, 2002.
 M. U. Chowdhury, D. Perera, T. Pham, A Performance Comparison of three Wireless Multi-hop Ad-hoc Network Routing Protocols when Streaming MPEG-4 137 Traffic, In Proceedings of the 8th International Multitopic Conference, pp. 516- 521, December 24-26, 2004.
 T. D. Dyer, R. V. Boppana, On Routing Web and Multimedia Traffic in Mobile Ad hoc Networks, In Proceedings of the 36th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS’03) -, Island of Hawaii, pages 10, January 6-8, 2003.
 X. Hong, K. Xu, M. Gerla, Scalable Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE Networks, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 11 – 21, 2002.  T.-C. Huang, C.-C. Chan, Caching Strategies for Dynamic Source Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC) 2007, 11-15 March 2007, pp. 4239 – 4243.
 C.-C. Ooi, N. Fisal, Implementation of Geocast-enhanced AODV-bis Routing Protocol in MANET, IEEE Region 10 Conference TENCON, Vol. B, pp. 660- 663, Chiang Mai, Thailand, November 21-24, 2004.
 C. Taddia, A. Giovanardi, G. Mazzini, Energy Efficiency in OLSR Protocol, 3rd Annual IEEE Communications Society on Sensor and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks, pp. 792–796, Vol. 3, September 28-28, 2006.
 H. Tafazolli, A Survey of QoS Routing Solutions for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 50–70, 2007.
 N. Taing, S. Thipchaksurat, R. Varakulsiripunth, H. Ishii, Performance Improvement of Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Multimedia Services in 38 Mobile Ad Hoc Network, 1st International Symposium on Wireless Pervasive Computing, 2006, 16-18 Jan. 2006, 5 pp.
 Y. F. Wong and W. C. Wong, A Fuzzy-Decision-Based Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, In Proceedings of the 10th IEEE International Conference on Networks, 2002, ICON 2002, Singapore, pp. 317-322, IEEE Computer Society, August 27-30, 2002.
Citation Count – 17
Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes that can communicate with each other using multihop wireless links without requiring any fixed based-station infrastructure and centralized management. Each node in the network acts as both a host and a router. In such scenario, designing of an efficient, reliable and secure routing protocol has been a major challenging issue over the last many years. Numerous chemes have been proposed for secure routing protocols and most of the research work has so far focused on providing security for routing using cryptography. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to secure Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol from the insider attacks launched through active forging of its Route Reply (RREP) control message. AODV routing protocol does not have any security provision that makes it less reliable in publicly open ad hoc network. To deal with the concerned security attacks, we have proposed AODV Security Extension (AODVSEC) which enhances the scope of AODV for the security provision. We have compared AODVSEC with AODV and Secure AODV (SAODV) in normal situation as well as in presence of the three concerned attacks viz. Resource Consumption (RC) attack, Route Disturb (RD) attack, Route Invasion (RI) attack and Blackhole (BH) attack. To evaluate the performances, we have considered Packet Delivery Fraction (PDF), Average End-to-End Delay (AED), Average Throughput (AT), Normalized Routing Load (NRL) and Average Jitter and Accumulated Average Processing Time.
AODV; SAODV; RREQ-ACK Cache; RC; RD; RI; BH ; NS-2.33; PDF; NRL; AED; AT; Jitter; Accumulated Average Processing Time
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 Amol A.Bhosle, Tushar P. Thosar, Snehal Mehatre,” Black-Hole and Wormhole Attack in RoutingProtocol AODV in MANET” Proceedings of IJCSEA, Vol.2,No.1, February 2012.
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Citation Count – 15
A Mobile Ad hoc network (MANET) is a self configurable network connected by wireless links. This type of network is only suitable for temporary communication links as it is infrastructure-less and there is no centralised control. Providing QoS aware routing is a challenging task in this type of network due to dynamic topology and limited resources. The main purpose of QoS aware routing is to find a feasible path from source to destination which will satisfy two or more end to end QoS constrains. Therefore, the task of designing an efficient routing algorithm which will satisfy all the quality of service requirements and be robust and adaptive is considered as a highly challenging problem. In this work we have designed a new efficient and energy aware multipath routing algorithm based on ACO framework, inspired by the behaviours of biological ants. Basically by considering QoS constraints and artificial ants we have designed an intelligent version of classical Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) which will increase network lifetime and decrease packet loss and average end to end delay that makes this algorithm suitable for real time and multimedia applications.
 P., Deepalakshmi, S., Radhakrishnan, (2009), “Ant Colony Based QoS Routing Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 459-462.
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 D., Sensarma, K., Majumder, (2012), “A Comparative Analysis of the Ant Based Systems for QoS Routing in MANET,” Recent Trends in Computer Networks and Distributed Systems Security,Communications in Computer and Information Science, Volume 335, pp 485-496.
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We present an evolutionary programming algorithm for solving the dynamic routing and wavelength assignment (DRWA) problem in optical wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) networks under wavelength continuity constraint. We assume an ideal physical channel and therefore neglect the blocking of connection requests due to the physical impairments. The problem formulation includes suitable constraints that enable the algorithm to balance the load among the individuals and thus results in a lower blocking probability and lower mean execution time than the existing bio-inspired algorithms available in the literature for the DRWA problems. Three types of wavelength assignment techniques, such as First fit, Random, and Round Robin wavelength assignment techniques have been investigated here. The ability to guarantee both low blocking probability without any wavelength converters and small delay makes the improved algorithm very attractive for current optical switching networks.
Dynamic Routing, Evolutionary Programming Algorithm, Wavelength Assignment, Set Up Time, Fitness Function.
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Citation Count – 08
MANET is a collection of mobile devices with no centralized control and no pre-existing infrastructures. Due to the nodal mobility, supporting QoS during routing in this type of networks is a very challenging task. To tackle this type of overhead many routing algorithms with clustering approach have been proposed. Clustering is an effective method for resource management regarding network performance, routing protocol design, QoS etc. Most of the flat network architecture contains homogeneous capacity of nodes but in real time nodes are with heterogeneous capacity and transmission power. Hierarchical routing provides routing through this kind of heterogeneous nodes. Here, routes can be recorded hierarchically, across clusters to increase routing flexibility. Besides this, it increases scalability and robustness of routes. In this paper, a novel ant based QoS aware routing is proposed on a three level hierarchical cluster based topology in MANET which will be more scalable and efficient compared to flat architecture and will give better throughput.
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International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications (IJCNC) Vol.5, No.6, November 2013 229
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Citation Count – 07
An ad-hoc network is an aggregation of wireless nodes forming a provisional network without any established infrastructure. To facilitate communication within such network, a routing protocol is used to discover and setup routes between nodes. The goal of the routing protocol is to have an efficient route establishment between a pair of nodes, so that messages can be delivered in a timely manner. This research investigates the effects of various mobility models on QoS metrics for two prominent proactive and reactive MANET routing protocols – Fisheye State Routing (FSR) protocol and Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector, from Uppsala University (AODVUU) respectively. Performance is measured by the varying number of traffic sources, number of nodes, host velocity, and data sending rate. These two protocols are simulated and compared under different mobility models namely Random Waypoint Mobility Model, Manhattan Grid Mobility Model and Reference Point Group Mobility Model. The performance metrics that are used to evaluate the performance of the routing protocols are Packet delivery ratio (PDR), Average latency of data packets, Network control overhead (NCO) and Throughput. Experimental results reveal that. on-demand routing protocol AODVUU is more sensitive to the speed of mobile nodes than the proactive routing protocol FSR. Due to its proactive nature, FSR can be used in bandwidth and resource critical environment. On the other hand scalability of AODVUU is limited for high-speed network. However, in case of higher data rates AODVUU always performs better in terms of PDR under all three mobility models.
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Citation Count – 05
Deployment of multimedia applications warrants provisioning of Quality of Service (QoS) in MANET. However, limited battery power, other resource constraints and mobility of nodes make QoS provisioning difficult to achieve in MANET. This difficulty can be overcome by using a cross-layer approach for routing. In  Patil et al., proposed a cross-layer routing protocol named Cost Based Power Aware Cross Layer – AODV (CPACL-AODV) which overcomes the limitation of battery power of nodes. Though many similar energy efficient and cross-layer routing protocols have been proposed for MANET, none of them handles QoS. A novel MANET routing protocol, Type of Service, Power and Bandwidth Aware AODV (TSPBA-AODV), which overcomes resource constraints and simultaneously provides QoS guarantees using a cross-layer approach, is proposed in this paper. In addition the effect of variation in nodes’ mobility on performance of TSPBA-AODV is compared with that of CPACL-AODV  for two different types of network traffic. As shown by the results of simulations performed, TSPBA-AODV performs better than CPACL-AODV for MANET in which nodes move with small speeds (speeds up to 40 Km/hr approx.). In addition the effect of variation in data sending rate of nodes on performance of the protocols is also studied. As shown by the results of simulations performed, TSPBA-AODV performs better than CPACL-AODV for all variations in data sending rate of nodes.
 Patil, R. & Damodaram, A. (2008) “Cost Based Power Aware Cross Layer Routing Protocol For Manet”, IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, Vol. 8, No.12, pp388-393.
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 Mbarushimana, C. & Shahrabi, A.(2008) “TSLA: A QoS-Aware On-Demand Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelber, LNCS 519, pp265-278.
Citation Count – 03
6LoWPAN (IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4) standardized by IEEE 802.15.4 provides IP communication capability for nodes in WSN. An adaptation layer is introduced above the MAC layer to achieve header compression, fragmentation and reassembly of IP packets. The location-based information is used to simplify the routing policy. This paper proposes an efficient location-based routing protocol, considering link quality and distance between nodes as the routing metric. The proposed Enhanced Location-based routing protocol (ELBRP) was simulated in NS2 version 2.32 and performance were analysed in terms of packet delivery ratio, throughput and average end-to-end delay. From the results obtained, it is found that the proposed ELBRP outperforms existing LOAD protocol.
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Goals”, IETF, RFC 4919.
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Citation Count – 02
The key to success in Next Generation Network is service routing in which service requests may need to be redirected as in the case of the INVITE request in Session Initiation Protocol . Service Path (SPath) holds the authentication and server paths along side with service information. As the number of hops in a redirection increases, the length of SPath increases. The overhead for service routing protocols which uses SPath increases with the length of SPath. Hence it is desirable to optimize SPath to ensure efficiency and scalability of protocols involving service routing. In this paper, we propose a re-routing strategy to optimize service routing, and demonstrate how this strategy can be implemented using SPath to enhance the efficiency and scalability of Service Network Graph (SNG).
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Tree routing is one of the detouring strategies employed in geographic routing to help find a detour for a packet to leave a local minimum. The effectiveness of tree routing depends on the quality of the pre-constructed routing trees. Existing tree construction methods build trees in a top-down and centralized fashion and do not consider the traffic pattern and residual energy of the network. Therefore is likely to create trees with poor routing performance. In this paper, we propose a novel routing tree, namely Energy-Efficient Traffic-Aware Detour Tree, which is constructed completely in a bottom-up fashion, with the consideration of both traffic load and residual energy. The simulation shows that our detour tree rarely encounters the problem of conflicting hulls, has much higher average path residual energy and throughput than other detour trees, leading to a better routing performance.
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